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khodder
Joined: 19 Dec 2005 Posts: 51780 Location: New New York

Posted: Sun Oct 28, 2012 5:43 pm Post subject: 



MaclinandMCcoy wrote:  RoxSox2004 wrote:  Econ 1 Question:
How can we reduce traffic congestion with no deadweight loss?
I admit, I'm stumped with this. 
Piguvian Tax on gas. 
I am a bit rusty, but would that not have potential to cause a fair amount of deadweight loss with the relative inelasticity of gas?
Would it not be easier to put a Pigouvian Tax on Cars/Motor Vehicles, then only those that derive enough benefit from owning or driving a car would buy one, traffic congestion would be minimised.
Again, I am rusty, so anyone else feel free to tell me I am completely wrong here. _________________


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24isthelaw
Joined: 15 Nov 2010 Posts: 7873 Location: Where the Patriots are

Posted: Tue Oct 30, 2012 10:49 pm Post subject: 



This may be a bit of a reach...
does anyone here know much about colloidal stability? I have a problem about a mixed 1:1 and 2:1 electrolyte solution and charged surface, and I have to calculate the debye length at which the system aggregates given only the concentration of the 2:1 electrolyte in the bulk of the solution. _________________
AdoptaPatriot: Marcus Forston  Practice squad (0 tackles, 0 sacks) 

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khodder
Joined: 19 Dec 2005 Posts: 51780 Location: New New York

Posted: Tue Oct 30, 2012 10:51 pm Post subject: 



24isthelaw wrote:  This may be a bit of a reach...
does anyone here know much about colloidal stability? I have a problem about a mixed 1:1 and 2:1 electrolyte solution and charged surface, and I have to calculate the debye length at which the system aggregates given only the concentration of the 2:1 electrolyte in the bulk of the solution. 
This question is here
My head is here
Sorry if this got your hopes up. _________________


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24isthelaw
Joined: 15 Nov 2010 Posts: 7873 Location: Where the Patriots are

Posted: Tue Oct 30, 2012 10:53 pm Post subject: 



khodder wrote:  24isthelaw wrote:  This may be a bit of a reach...
does anyone here know much about colloidal stability? I have a problem about a mixed 1:1 and 2:1 electrolyte solution and charged surface, and I have to calculate the debye length at which the system aggregates given only the concentration of the 2:1 electrolyte in the bulk of the solution. 
This question is here
My head is here
Sorry if this got your hopes up. 
No problem dude. Just taking a shot in the dark cause I have no idea where to go with this problem and its not really in the textbook... _________________
AdoptaPatriot: Marcus Forston  Practice squad (0 tackles, 0 sacks) 

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Tom Shean
Joined: 10 Oct 2012 Posts: 4739 Location: Tha 703

Posted: Tue Oct 30, 2012 10:54 pm Post subject: 



So it says
"Use the Pauli exclusion principle and the aufbau principle to write the electron configuration for Chlorine, Nitrogen, and Calcium"
I have no idea what the Pauli exclusion principle or the aufbau principle are.
Helpz pls. _________________


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khodder
Joined: 19 Dec 2005 Posts: 51780 Location: New New York

Posted: Tue Oct 30, 2012 11:26 pm Post subject: 



Tom Shean wrote:  So it says
"Use the Pauli exclusion principle and the aufbau principle to write the electron configuration for Chlorine, Nitrogen, and Calcium"
I have no idea what the Pauli exclusion principle or the aufbau principle are.
Helpz pls. 
Pauli Exclusion Principle
Aufbau Principle _________________


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Tom Shean
Joined: 10 Oct 2012 Posts: 4739 Location: Tha 703

Posted: Tue Oct 30, 2012 11:35 pm Post subject: 



khodder wrote:  Tom Shean wrote:  So it says
"Use the Pauli exclusion principle and the aufbau principle to write the electron configuration for Chlorine, Nitrogen, and Calcium"
I have no idea what the Pauli exclusion principle or the aufbau principle are.
Helpz pls. 
Pauli Exclusion Principle
Aufbau Principle 
Because this thread was the first thing I tried...
I was maybe looking if someone could explain the concept simply, and how it relates to electron configuration. _________________


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mse326
Joined: 19 Jan 2008 Posts: 17454 Location: mike23md on the sig

Posted: Wed Oct 31, 2012 12:26 am Post subject: 



Tom Shean wrote:  khodder wrote:  Tom Shean wrote:  So it says
"Use the Pauli exclusion principle and the aufbau principle to write the electron configuration for Chlorine, Nitrogen, and Calcium"
I have no idea what the Pauli exclusion principle or the aufbau principle are.
Helpz pls. 
Pauli Exclusion Principle
Aufbau Principle 
Because this thread was the first thing I tried...
I was maybe looking if someone could explain the concept simply, and how it relates to electron configuration. 
Pauli exclusion principle says no two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers. So the numbers are n, l, m(l), m(s) [the parenthese are subscripsts]
To give you quick shorthand
n= 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6. This comes from the shell number. So like H and He are 1, LiNe are 2.
l= are the orbital s=0, p=1, d=2, f=3
m(l) will = range from l to l+1 going in intergers. So so S has 1 orbital, p will have 3 (1, 0, 1)
m(s) is the spin. 1 or 1.
The pauli exclusion principle says no 2 electrons have the same 4 numbers. For your purposes this basically means the maximum number of electrons per orbital is the number of m(l) orbitalx2.
That gives a chart of
s orbital has 2 electrons
p orbital has 6 electrons
d orbital has 10 electrons
f orbital has 14 electrons
Aufbau principle says electrons fill the the lowest orbitals in total first. That means that for lithium (3 electrons) it will fill 1s before going to 2s. Generally this means the lower shell number (that would be the n number) goes first but it gets a little freaky for higher numbers. Basically the order of precedence is 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p.
It also says that the electrons will fill the orbitals in an order to be most stable. This means each shell that has more than 1 orbital (e.g. p shells have 3) will be filled 1 at a time before a second electron is placed into an orbital.
The number of electrons = the atomic number (unless it asks you to do one for an ion which you aren't asked here)
So Chlorine is 17. So just go in order until you reach 17
1s=2
2s=2
2p=6
3s=2
3p=5 (6 can fit but there is only 5 left)
So written out would read (here parentheses are superscripts) 1s(2)2s(2)2p(6)3s(2)3p(5).
Now to show aufbau you probably need to actually draw it (maybe your teacher showed you lines and then arrows pointing up and down). Basically on line per orbital (so 1 for s's and 3 for p's). Put 1 arrow up and 1 down on all of them except the 3p which will have 1 of the orbitals with only 1 arrow. It doesn't matter which one. This actually isn't the best example to really illustrate the aufbau principle. Nitrogen is a better example.
Nitrogen = 7
1s=2
2s=2
2p=3
1s(s)2s(2)2p(3)
When you draw it you have three orbitals for p like always. The aufbau principle says electrons fill to be the most stable. That means that 1 will go in each orbital BEFORE you put in a second in an orbital. So the 3 orbitals will each have 1 arrow.
Calcium = 20
You see how it's done so I'll just write it out
1s(2)2s(2)2p(6)3s(2)3p(6)4s(2)
All orbitals will have 2 arrows.
Now I wanted to show you how to get to the orbital by adding so you understand but basically you can know the final orbital simply from the periodic table (it is part of the reason it is drawn the way it is)
Column 1 and 2 are the s orbital
Column 1318 are the p orbital (with the exception of He which is s)
Transition metals are d orbital
Actinide and Lanthanide series are f
The shell number (the first seen) is the row number for orbitals s and p. It is row1 for d (so the first transition metals which are in row 4 are in the 3d orbital) and row2 for f.
It's late so this might have come out confusing. Let me know if there is something you didn't understand. _________________
#JDI
Last edited by mse326 on Wed Oct 31, 2012 2:09 am; edited 1 time in total 

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Tom Shean
Joined: 10 Oct 2012 Posts: 4739 Location: Tha 703

Posted: Wed Oct 31, 2012 1:12 am Post subject: 



Wow. Thanks for that really indepth explanation. I think I've got it down now. _________________


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Vikefan79
Joined: 05 Apr 2005 Posts: 29753 Location: Atlanta

Posted: Wed Oct 31, 2012 1:29 am Post subject: 



mse326 wrote:  Tom Shean wrote:  khodder wrote:  Tom Shean wrote:  So it says
"Use the Pauli exclusion principle and the aufbau principle to write the electron configuration for Chlorine, Nitrogen, and Calcium"
I have no idea what the Pauli exclusion principle or the aufbau principle are.
Helpz pls. 
Pauli Exclusion Principle
Aufbau Principle 
Because this thread was the first thing I tried...
I was maybe looking if someone could explain the concept simply, and how it relates to electron configuration. 
Pauli exclusion principle says no two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers. So the numbers are n, l, m(l), m(s) [the parenthese are subscripsts]
To give you quick shorthand
n= 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6. This comes from the shell number. So like H and He are 1, LiNe are 2.
l= are the orbital s=0, p=1, d=2, f=3
m(l) will = range from 1 to l+1 going in intergers. So so S has 1 orbital, p will have 3 (1, 0, 1)
m(s) is the spin. 1 or 1.
The pauli exclusion principle says no 2 electrons have the same 4 numbers. For your purposes this basically means the maximum number of electrons per orbital is the number of m(l) orbitalx2.
That gives a chart of
s orbital has 2 electrons
p orbital has 6 electrons
d orbital has 10 electrons
f orbital has 14 electrons
Aufbau principle says electrons fill the the lowest orbitals in total first. That means that for lithium (3 electrons) it will fill 1s before going to 2s. Generally this means the lower shell number (that would be the n number) goes first but it gets a little freaky for higher numbers. Basically the order of precedence is 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p.
It also says that the electrons will fill the orbitals in an order to be most stable. This means each shell that has more than 1 orbital (e.g. p shells have 3) will be filled 1 at a time before a second electron is placed into an orbital.
The number of electrons = the atomic number (unless it asks you to do one for an ion which you aren't asked here)
So Chlorine is 17. So just go in order until you reach 17
1s=2
2s=2
2p=6
3s=2
3p=5 (6 can fit but there is only 5 left)
So written out would read (here parentheses are superscripts) 1s(2)2s(2)2p(6)3s(2)3p(5).
Now to show aufbau you probably need to actually draw it (maybe your teacher showed you lines and then arrows pointing up and down). Basically on line per orbital (so 1 for s's and 3 for p's). Put 1 arrow up and 1 down on all of them except the 3p which will have 1 of the orbitals with only 1 arrow. It doesn't matter which one. This actually isn't the best example to really illustrate the aufbau principle. Nitrogen is a better example.
Nitrogen = 7
1s=2
2s=2
2p=3
1s(s)2s(2)2p(3)
When you draw it you have three orbitals for p like always. The aufbau principle says electrons fill to be the most stable. That means that 1 will go in each orbital BEFORE you put in a second in an orbital. So the 3 orbitals will each have 1 arrow.
Calcium = 20
You see how it's done so I'll just write it out
1s(2)2s(2)2p(6)3s(2)3p(6)4s(2)
All orbitals will have 2 arrows.
Now I wanted to show you how to get to the orbital by adding so you understand but basically you can know the final orbital simply from the periodic table (it is part of the reason it is drawn the way it is)
Column 1 and 2 are the s orbital
Column 1318 are the p orbital (with the exception of He which is s)
Transition metals are d orbital
Actinide and Lanthanide series are f
The shell number (the first seen) is the row number for orbitals s and p. It is row1 for d (so the first transition metals which are in row 4 are in the 3d orbital) and row2 for f.
It's late so this might have come out confusing. Let me know if there is something you didn't understand. 
I don't want to understand anything you just wrote. If I need this to finish my bachelors degree let me know so I can call the school tomorrow and quit! 

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khodder
Joined: 19 Dec 2005 Posts: 51780 Location: New New York

Posted: Wed Oct 31, 2012 3:08 am Post subject: 



Tom Shean wrote:  khodder wrote:  Tom Shean wrote:  So it says
"Use the Pauli exclusion principle and the aufbau principle to write the electron configuration for Chlorine, Nitrogen, and Calcium"
I have no idea what the Pauli exclusion principle or the aufbau principle are.
Helpz pls. 
Pauli Exclusion Principle
Aufbau Principle 
Because this thread was the first thing I tried...
I was maybe looking if someone could explain the concept simply, and how it relates to electron configuration. 
Apologies, just sounded like you did not even know the first thing about them and linking you to a google search of them seemed like the best place to start. _________________


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Mr. V
Joined: 07 Sep 2011 Posts: 2697 Location: Atlanta

Posted: Mon Nov 12, 2012 4:30 pm Post subject: 



For a series, can the ratio between terms be negative? For example, the terms of the first three terms of a series are 3, 9/2, and 27/4. Is it an alternating series with r=3/2 or is r=3/2? _________________
Thank you daboyle250 for the sig. 

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ReggieCamp
Joined: 06 Dec 2006 Posts: 9766 Location: Canonsburg, PA

Posted: Tue Nov 13, 2012 1:47 pm Post subject: 



Mr. V wrote:  For a series, can the ratio between terms be negative? For example, the terms of the first three terms of a series are 3, 9/2, and 27/4. Is it an alternating series with r=3/2 or is r=3/2? 
Yes, the ratio can be negative. In your example, r=3/2. _________________ Suffering produces perseverance; perseverance, character; and character, hope.
It will happen some day. Not sure when. 

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Jetsman82
Joined: 20 Jan 2007 Posts: 20463

Posted: Thu Nov 15, 2012 10:07 pm Post subject: 



ReggieCamp wrote:  Mr. V wrote:  For a series, can the ratio between terms be negative? For example, the terms of the first three terms of a series are 3, 9/2, and 27/4. Is it an alternating series with r=3/2 or is r=3/2? 
Yes, the ratio can be negative. In your example, r=3/2. 
What he said.
Ugh. Reminds me of freshman year again . Thank God I don't need calc that much anymore. 

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Mr. V
Joined: 07 Sep 2011 Posts: 2697 Location: Atlanta

Posted: Thu Nov 15, 2012 11:36 pm Post subject: 



Jetsman82 wrote:  ReggieCamp wrote:  Mr. V wrote:  For a series, can the ratio between terms be negative? For example, the terms of the first three terms of a series are 3, 9/2, and 27/4. Is it an alternating series with r=3/2 or is r=3/2? 
Yes, the ratio can be negative. In your example, r=3/2. 
What he said.
Ugh. Reminds me of freshman year again . Thank God I don't need calc that much anymore. 
I'm a senior in high school and really enjoy it, but I'm a math guy.
Thanks for the help guys. _________________
Thank you daboyle250 for the sig. 

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